## What is Classification All About?

Let us start with the basic definition.

In classification, objects are sorted into groups (or classes) based on factors that influence them.

For instance, categorization enables us to respond to the following questions:

- Is this worker in jeopardy of quitting the business?

- Is this product from our factory defective?

- Will this prospective client be engaged in our services and therefore open to our marketing

Influencer factors can be measurements and dimensions. Each protentional dimension member that can make up the goal number correlates to a distinct category under which the item may fall.

The target value can only have one of two possible values, such as “faulty” or “not faulty,” as you may have noticed from the fact that all of the samples I’ve provided are “yes/no” queries.

Due to the binary classification performed by the SAC Smart Predict algorithm, which prevents us from classifying things into more than two groups, the scenarios have been restricted to these few. **Despite how serious this restriction may seem, it has advantages**.

One benefit is that it makes it simple to calculate each group’s likelihood of inclusion instead of merely providing a predictable categorization. Thus, if we want to categorize a large number of objects, we can arrange them according to probability, which enables us to slightly rephrase our inquiries:

- Which of our workers has the greatest chance of leaving the company?

- Which products from our factory are most likely to be defective?

- Which prospective clients are most likely to respond favorably to our marketing?

### The Concept of Classification

Categorization aims to identify a function that indicates the likelihood that a given input corresponds to class 1 instead of class 0. This likelihood serves as the foundation for our ultimate classification.

Let’s go back to the earlier case of determining which prospective consumers will most likely respond favorably to our marketing using age and wealth influencer variables.

Our objective is to identify a function, f, that, given a person’s age and wealth, outputs an approximation of the likelihood that this individual will be receptive to marketing. That this is a sensible option for the probability function should be obvious to us as people.

We will officially describe the “best” option in part on Maximum Likelihood so that a computer can comprehend it.

**The probability function allows us to make a choice.**

### Figuring out ‘F’

Let’s attempt to standardize and generalize our configuration: We will record the matching goal value in a binary variable, yi, and keep the influencer variables of the i’th training sample in a vector, xi. For illustration, we could have yi = 1 representing a client receptive to marketing and yi = 0 representing the reverse.

To discover a decent probability function f, it is crucial to address the following two questions:

- What kind of a function should it be?
- How can we discover a useful function of this kind?

### Decision Trees and the Logistic Sigmoid

Decision Trees and the Logistic Sigmoid are examples of what f should resemble.

We need the function type to be very flexible for it to be able to characterize a variety of input-output relationships because Smart Predict is designed to operate with almost any dataset. Using a decision tree allows for this freedom.

**A logistic sigmoid function is applied to the decision tree’s output to guarantee that the result is an integer between 0 and 1.**

Passing a flexible function—in this instance, a standard linear model—through a logistic sigmoid should sound recognizable if you’ve ever heard of logistic regression.

But in this instance, we substitute a decision tree for the conventional linear model. A decision tree poses a succession ofquestions about its input and outputs based on the responses. The decision tree can handle dimensions and measures as input and makes no previous assumptions about the connections we want to characterize.

### Maximum Likelihood: Identifying the qualities of a “good” model

To determine which model is the best, we must first establish an estimate of how “good” or “bad” a particular model is.

**Remember how the Residual Sum of Squares as our loss function is used in regression? We wanted to reduce it because it indicated how “bad” our model was; similarly, in classification, though with a slightly more complicated expression, we want to optimize it.**

### Choosing the most appropriate choice tree using maximum probability

Make an inventory of all potential inquiries in accordance with the definition provided above. For every conceivable query:

1) To create two new temporary branches in the tree, try asking the question of each training example and dividing the instances into a “yes” and a “no” group.

- Choose the ideal constant number for each leaf’s forecast by the tree. (this part has also relegated to the appendix since it requires diving into the nitty-gritty mathematics).

- Determine the overall loss of the tree if the numbers in this question and the following constants are used.

2)Select the query resulting in the lowest loss, then add it to the tree.

3)Until the tree achieves a certain maximum depth or the loss is suitably low, recursively repeat steps 1-3 on each of the created subtrees (including only the questions pertinent for the training examples).

### Gradient Boosting

**Gradient boosting prevents overfitting by combining decision trees**.

Gradient Boosting, an algorithm SAC Smart Predict uses, prevents overfitting while still allowing it to characterize the data’s possibly complicated relationships. The concept is to use the combined outputs from an ensemble of shallow decision trees to make our forecasts. Individually, they are so straightforward that they could not possibly overfit, but when their combined efforts can accurately characterize.

#### Conclusion

As demonstrated above, the fundamental concepts required to comprehend categorization and regression are nearly identical.